The earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before 1130 CE. These were mostly Nisei and Kibei who had renounced their U.S. citizenship when asked to sign a loyalty oath that had confusing language, saying the person agreed to "give up loyalty to the Japanese emperor." A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west; the village was called Oghá P'o'oge in Tewa. In the mid-20th century there was a thriving Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. It is home to three Air Force bases, White Sands Missile Range, and the federal research laboratories Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. Population: ~ 2,100,000. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U.S. New Mexico Territory. The judge is elected to four-year terms. Among the 50 states of America, New Mexico is the 5th largest in size. Other notable local figures include the National Dance Institute of New Mexico and German New Age musician Deuter. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican, but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles. The New Mexico Tourism Department estimates that in Fiscal Year 2006, the travel industry in New Mexico generated expenditures of $6.5 billion. New Mexico residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. [68], The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 48% of the total 2015 population was Hispanic or Latino of any race, the highest of any state. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. The Southwest Chief is the successor to the Super Chief and El Capitan. Along with the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, a commuter rail line serving the metropolitan areas of Albuquerque and Santa Fe, the city or its environs are served by two other railroads. New Mexico imposes a weight-distance tax on owners, operators, and registrants of intra and interstate commercial vehicles with a declared gross vehicle weight in excess of 26,000 pounds. [14] The Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica (Aztec) cultures there similar to those of the Aztec (Mexica) Empire of the Valley of Mexico. [127] As a territory, the Gadsden Purchase increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of the constructing a southern transcontinental railroad, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The sources for this style came from the many defining features of local architecture: vigas (rough, exposed beams that extrude through supporting walls, and are thus visible outside as well as inside the building) and canales (rain spouts cut into short parapet walls around flat roofs), features borrowed from many old adobe homes and churches built many years before and found in the Pueblos, along with the earth-toned look (reproduced in stucco) of the old adobe exteriors. Tourism is a major element of the Santa Fe economy, with visitors attracted year-round by the climate and related outdoor activities (such as skiing in years of adequate snowfall; hiking in other seasons) plus cultural activities of the city and the region. Governors serve a term of four years, and may seek re-election for one additional term (limit of two terms). Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, some of the vocabulary of New Mexican Spanish is unknown to other Spanish speakers. All State Capitals those who do not pay taxes cannot vote. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. In 1912, when the town's population was approximately 5,000 people, the city's civic leaders designed and enacted a sophisticated city plan that incorporated elements of the contemporary City Beautiful movement, city planning, and historic preservation. Neither was sufficient to offset the negative effects of Santa Fe's having been bypassed by the main railroad route. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Their entire army was captured and jailed by the Hispanic New Mexico militia. At New Mexico Capital Partners, our philosophy is to leave things better than we found them. Bills, Garland D., and Neddy A. Vigil. [37]:166 New Mexico was eligible for statehood 60 years earlier but was kept out of the union for more than a half-century because it had a majority "alien" (i.e. The Albuquerque International Sunport is the state's primary port of entry for air transportation. [citation needed], Santa Fe is located at 7,199 feet (2,194 m) above sea level, making it the highest state capital in the United States.[2]. 2008. [118][119] It does not have inheritance tax, estate tax, or sales taxes. The city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. After a few years serving in Santa Fe,[22] Bernalillo and Taos,[23] he moved to Isleta on December 28, 1891. New Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Additionally, both characters ultimately decide to stay in New York City because they realize their love of the city and its people, despite everything. This is an ancient sun symbol of a Native American people called the Zia. Security at Santa Fe was similar to a military prison, with twelve-foot barbed wire fences, guard towers equipped with searchlights, and guards carrying rifles, side arms and tear gas. [98] The Permian and San Juan Basins, which are located partly in New Mexico, account for some of these natural resources. Currently, both chambers of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. The fundamental principle was that the town be laid out around a central plaza. A large artistic community thrives in Santa Fe, and has included such people as Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, John Connell and Steina Vasulka. The New Mexico Legislature consists of the House of Representatives and Senate. The Chihuahuan Desert extends through the south of the state and is characterized by shrubby creosote. Some visitors find Santa Fe particularly attractive around the second week of September when the aspens in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains turn yellow and the skies are clear and blue. There is also local government, consisting of counties, municipalities and special districts. [34], In January 2016, New Mexico sued the United States Environmental Protection Agency over negligence after the 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill. New Mexico has three dioceses, one of which is an archdiocese:[90] The Canyon Road arts area with its galleries is also a major attraction for locals and visitors alike. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels. Little Bear Coffee Co. is a specialty, multi-roaster coffee shop in Albuquerque, New Mexico. According to the United States Census Bureau Model-based Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, the number of persons in poverty has increased to 400,779 (19.8% of the population) persons in 2010 from 2000. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate. [144] Front Range Commuter Rail is a project to connect Wyoming and New Mexico with high-speed rail. Three secondary targeted industries for Santa Fe to focus development in are health care, retiree services, and food & beverage. Various U.S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico, such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. As of the 2010 census, there were 67,947 people living in the city. Founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, Santa Fe is the oldest state capital city in the United States. The city's institutions of higher education include St. John's College, a liberal arts college; the Institute of American Indian Arts, a tribal college for Native American arts; Southwestern College, a graduate school for counseling and art therapy; and Santa Fe Community College. Many are around the historic downtown Plaza or close by: New Mexico Museum of Art – collections of Southwestern Arts. [135] In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of Colorado. [179] In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent[180] and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico.[181]. [136]:9 The first operational railroad, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway (ATSF), entered the territory by way of the lucrative and contested Raton Pass in 1878. [47] Anglo-Americans made distinctions between the wealthy Mexicans and poor, ill-educated laborers. Gary Johnson served as governor from 1995 to 2003. Santa Fe tops the other 50 … [95] As of April 2012[update], the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%. With an estimated population of 2,096,829 as of the July 1, 2019, U.S. Census Bureau estimate, New Mexico is the 36th largest state by population. 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